The composite data types in JavaScript include arrays, objects, and functions. Typically, the composite data types are passed by reference that restricts the cloning of data. So, we use an indirect approach — spread operator — for the “copy by value” of the composite or non-primitive data types. Nevertheless, when we write a huge piece of code (say 100000 lines), the composite data types are handy.

On the other hand, the primitive data types are copied by value. We can assign the variables and modify the values. Also, the memory allocation of each variable is an independent event.


URL is nothing but the Uniform Resource Locator that is the address of the website, which we enter in the address bar(guvi.in). On the other hand, the DNS (Domain Name System) is the database that links the URL with a particular IP address. The IP address comes from the computer…


HTTP 1.1 was a third version of the HTTP and was in action for more than 15 years. SPDY protocol is a modified version of HTTP1 that was released by Google. HTTP 2 was derived from SPDY. The HTTP 2 delivered faster content and improved user experience through:

  • Binary protocols…

Swaminathan Rammohan

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